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普宁唯一一座四百多年历史的围龙屋,期待修复展新姿

来源:揭阳之窗 时间:2017/11/7 13:57:37 字体:[ / ] 阅读:793

普宁市虽然隶属潮汕地区,但是其境内客家人数众多,因此留下了不少客家古建筑,位于船埔镇梅田村的围龙屋“安民围”就是其中之一,它至今已有四百多年的历史,是普宁市现存的唯一一座客家围龙屋建筑。

 
 
     这座叫做“安民围”的围龙屋历经四百年的岁月洗礼,虽然已是破败不堪,但仍可见其样貌和规模。如果再看一下2004年拍摄的影像,更不难看出它的恢宏与壮观。
 
    “安民围”是梅田村吴氏家族的祖屋。据吴氏后人介绍,他们的先祖是明万历十年即公元1582年来到梅田村的。梅田村,因自古遍种梅树而得名,是一个多姓氏聚居的村落。吴氏先祖因打铁手艺精、友善待人而逐渐获得当地人的认可,便在这里住了下来。经过几年的奋斗之后,在当地买了宅地,建了围屋,也就是今天的“安民围”。
 
 
     据介绍,安民围建筑面积近五千平方米,总共有99间房。吴氏后人吴章维介绍说,建这个围龙屋也是为了本族的和谐,大家族在这里住下来,然后慢慢建起来的,它不是一次性做起来的,是有几十年的时间,才慢慢建起来。最多的时候住了四百六七十人。
 
 
     吴氏后人说,安民围整体平面并不是真正的圆形,而是不规划的蛋形,所以是后圆前方,外圆内方,这在客家围龙屋中也较为少见。而围内道路四通八达,按易卦分布,头尾相连,错综复杂,外人难进难出。除此之外,安民围房间功能设计多样,有单间,也有带天井的独立户型,而大户人家还设有灶间、澡堂等生活设施。尤其值得一提的是围屋的排水系统,堪称一流。
 
 
 
     可惜的是,如今很多东西已经不复存在,唯独正门口这只石狮子屹立不倒,还有因它而得名的狮石坪也保留完好。据说,当年的狮石坪不仅是晒谷、乘凉、聊天的好地方,更是吴家人的练武之地。如今这两块练武石就是历史的最好见证。吴氏后人介绍说,两块石头,这块是180斤,一块是280斤,从小孩子开始,从小的这块石头开始练,到18周岁了,就必须有力气把这280斤的石头搬上石条。
 
 
 
     作为潮汕地区唯一一座大型客家围龙屋,是潮汕地区客家文化最具代表性、最为宝贵的历史遗产,如今年久失修,没有专人管理,倒塌破坏严重的现状。作为政府保护文化遗产责无旁贷,但更多是引导作用,要投入保护和开发的力度捉襟见肘有心无力。政府的规划,乡贤和贤达财力的真正投入,围龙屋的保护和开发才能够真正看到效果。
 
     据了解,为了抢救面临坍塌的安民围,船埔镇、普宁市两级政府已经行动起来,开始了有效的修缮工作。
     船埔镇党委委员罗伟忠说,他们的想法是:
     第一对围龙屋的确权,就是哪一间是哪个人的先确权。
     第二步就是抢救性地维修,修缮。
     第三步就征求专家意见,聘请古建筑方面的专家对围龙屋进行规划。
     第四步是规划好之后作为一个景点进行打造。
 
     普宁市副市长熊孟清也表示,对梅田围龙屋,政府已经拨出专款,准备进行保护和综合性开发,将来希望以围龙屋为核心景点,把梅田村这个古村落建成一个旅游综合体,打造普宁西部的旅游廊道。
 
 
     梅田村的围龙屋“安民围”是客家文化的代表性建筑,承载着厚重的人文历史,具有较高的历史价值和文化价值,我们期待“安民围”在当地政府的高度重视下能够早日修复,为研究客家文化、发展旅游发挥作用。
 
作者:揭阳之窗 责任编辑:liumingming 分享:收蒧 | 复制网址
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