http://www.512mtv.com http://www.ktdvb.com http://www.nnvcd.com 澳门人娱乐城 沙龙电游 沙龙电游 http://www.512mtv.com/sl/8485709.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/3955240.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/7505771.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/5845402.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/9795840.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/4505601.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6675273.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6155373.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/2615362.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6195983.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/5615966.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/2925060.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/4655859.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/5345864.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/8115528.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/3175985.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/4325356.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1095142.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1395278.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/7925500.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/8265585.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/4895369.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/7365975.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/5435328.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/9955268.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1255959.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/9855732.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/8165715.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6525369.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/0045390.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6625476.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/2925150.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/2635072.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6635524.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/6235895.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1615074.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/3985019.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1345865.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/0615023.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/3455861.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/9225523.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/0015617.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/2765145.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/9325217.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/9175268.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/4465168.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/7985119.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1345050.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/2705810.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/1445712.html http://www.512mtv.com/sl/0155817.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2665048.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6245081.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6365550.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2635793.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/0285007.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3305150.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/5695250.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3875666.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/1595448.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/4535777.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/7315259.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/0085197.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/5525823.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/9365694.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/1315895.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/9805815.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/4255180.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2345476.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/8925668.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2745045.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6155126.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/9905231.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/0635695.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/7745067.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3035400.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/1845346.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3955077.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/0555890.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/9885761.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/1655702.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/0755798.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2065250.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6095467.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/4815198.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/8995670.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6315311.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2585472.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6575019.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/6705887.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/5055808.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/7035085.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/1425349.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3785291.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2515992.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/5965475.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/9765385.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/7615514.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/2925117.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3225194.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/3515455.html http://www.hilongyan.com/sl/0195229.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/4765405.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/6505187.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0915189.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/8985201.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/7515239.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/4785500.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/3145810.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0095900.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/1225577.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/8465154.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/3615567.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0835289.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/7445167.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/9635581.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/2365622.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/9875970.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0865338.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/4115604.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0125967.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/1715727.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0165114.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/6145790.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/1315836.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/7625711.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/8835869.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/2795262.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0245614.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/4735932.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/7335865.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/5085905.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/1135256.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/2475724.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/8675462.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0985516.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/3435586.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/3025028.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/0625825.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/5905743.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/1225045.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/4455322.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/9125548.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/2555742.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/5565792.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/7415734.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/9985558.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/1025397.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/2345905.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/8335141.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/3395836.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/7725942.html http://www.ktdvb.com/sl/4235718.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/4335106.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7515402.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7325501.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5305744.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/8095547.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/0685801.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/1365892.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/9685821.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5135254.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/9395732.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/1485349.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/9305502.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7775492.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7065168.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3545726.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5555463.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/1055596.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/1475321.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/9735270.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3805937.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5805160.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/1025750.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/8255734.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/0795266.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3955203.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3285686.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/4125666.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3045383.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/1045566.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5385038.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/4655619.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/6305845.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/4235341.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/2655536.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/9345001.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5465816.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3935105.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/8745623.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7935139.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/2735290.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/8325003.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5135937.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/6475029.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/3065765.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5875406.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/0365167.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7855090.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/5235291.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/7105424.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/2395193.html http://www.nnvcd.com/sl/8765053.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/4705662.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7595117.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/8055484.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7335078.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/5295575.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/0295873.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/1985950.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7445415.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6735988.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/1435960.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/3435917.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7245743.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/1345118.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/8465414.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/1785680.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/4615817.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/4015124.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6325321.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/3085758.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/4575212.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/9915485.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/2765305.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6615911.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/4555729.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6615820.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/2095978.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/8695628.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7205604.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/8295381.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6335641.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/9865075.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6655494.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/5455424.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/5715477.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/4845400.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/3855680.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7425078.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/6865691.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/9665172.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/0465011.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/1465185.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/3275972.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/3575974.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7085657.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/3615329.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7935815.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/1465897.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/9565860.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/8155440.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/9015637.html http://www.qiwangming.com/sl/7125703.html
首页 | 环球潮讯 | 潮人智库 | 潮音潮乐 | 人物辞条 | 潮汕图库 | 潮人图库 | 直播 | 范文 | 专题 | 专题
X
你的位置:潮汕资讯 > 潮州资讯 > 详细内容

潮州铁枝木偶戏,掌上演绎潮汕文化

来源:金玲 时间:2017/11/3 14:28:54 字体:[ / ] 阅读:832

戏棚的舞台一丈见方,离地约4尺半,台中挂幕帘,身高1至2尺的木偶踏着锣鼓声在橱窗般的戏台上演绎不同的故事。原本僵硬的木头经过手工艺创作,拥有了惟妙惟肖的神情和身段,戏班艺人用三根铁枝操纵木偶的躯干和双手,配上扎实的潮剧唱腔,成为了潮州铁枝木偶戏经典的表演场面,这项精彩绝伦的民间艺术流行于广东潮汕一带,于2006年入选首批国家非物质文化遗产名录戏剧类。铁枝木偶不仅支撑起一台戏,更撑起底蕴深厚、异彩纷呈的潮汕传统文化。

 
     影戏酬神,真正的“老爷戏”
 
     因主演材料不同,中国的传统影戏分手影戏、纸影戏和皮影戏三大类。潮州的铁枝木偶戏又称“纸影戏”,发源于宋朝,兴盛于明清,改革于民国初年。但现在的“纸影戏”为何不见纸的踪影,而变成了铁枝木偶呢?原来早期制作影人时,潮州戏班还是采用老办法,用厚纸片(马粪纸或牛皮纸)雕镂,在一张白纸硬窗背后点油灯映影表演。可到了清末,因为各类民俗庆典白天表演的需要,才逐渐产生了铁枝木偶。纸影的唱目同潮剧相同,语言注重本色,又具文采,富有地方特色,善于运用方言文化等,生动形象,意趣盎然,再配搭经典潮乐,铁枝木偶戏俨然就是“微型潮剧”。
 
     潮州铁枝木偶戏富有浓浓“潮味”,每逢“营老爷”、入祠庆典、迎神送神等民间节庆,铁枝木偶戏常常是不可缺少的酬神、娱乐项目。戏班表演的剧目主要是吉祥戏,以讨个好彩头,如开台必演的《五福连》,亦称《八仙祝寿》。在潮汕民间,有不少老人把纸影戏当作真正的“老爷戏”,认为纸影戏过后才能做人戏,真人演出的潮剧要排在木偶戏之后。清代黄钊的《潮居中杂诗》就有写道:“落彤朝问鬼,影戏夜酬神。”可见潮州铁枝木偶戏在潮汕民俗中的风靡程度。
 
 
 
     潮州铁枝木偶戏在改革开放初期迎来了黄金时代,那时人们想看好戏还需排队预约剧团,到了鼎盛时期,一场表演从长达3小时变成6小时,晚上7点演到凌晨1点,观众热情与当下年轻人熬夜追剧的情形不相上下,可谓深受欢迎,盛况空前。
 
     一双手撑起草根艺术
 
     只需三根铁枝,木偶就能行云流水般地在台上舞刀弄枪、搔首弄姿,当然,不可忽视在背后卖力操纵表演的那双手。
 
     戏班演出时会用竹竿、木板临时搭建舞台,操纵木偶的师傅席地而坐或者站立,然后从携带的道具“四箱二囊”中布置表演,即2箱木偶,1箱乐器,1箱布景,2个竹囊,装大鼓、日遮、油布、搭台用具等标配。
 
     传统铁枝木偶戏班一般为9人,操纵、演唱和乐师各3人,但往往操纵者和乐师亦演亦唱,技艺精湛的师傅还能边玩艺边演唱,更绝的是,有的艺人甚至可以操纵手中木偶却口唱他人之词,一心多用,切换自如。台上正中的人,一般是资历较浅的小徒,叫中剧;左侧的人,叫副剧,是操纵偶人的二号人物;位于台上右侧的,叫正剧,是戏班资深台柱。现在潮州话还会用“持正剧的”来比作单位的负责人,说明此人角色之重要。
 
 
 
     操纵木偶表演,不仅是个手艺活,还需要发挥体力和脑力。操纵木偶的三根铁枝分为中箸、左箸和右箸,中著控制“中枢神经”把握平衡,左、右箸分别系于木偶的左、右手,舞弄动作。表演时,艺人需要用特有的手法,左手掌心向上,中指和无名指夹住中箸,拇指和食指捏着左箸,右手则捏着右箸,靠腕力改变木偶的动作,这木偶不过约2斤重,操纵者却要长时间保持一个姿势,心中琢磨表演,口里念唱词剧,手中舞弄角色。潮州铁枝木偶戏的艺术价值,正是由这样全身心投入的艺人“以情带声,声情并茂”地演绎戏剧,也展现出潮州民间艺人的草根智慧。
 
     在困境中搞创新、谋发展
 
     铁枝木偶不只是一种谋生的工具,更是一种具有独特地域特色的文化符号。对老玉春香剧团的第三代掌门人许瑞杰而言,潮州铁枝木偶是贯穿他们家族几代人的理想,“不能在我们这一代断了”是许瑞杰如今最挂心的事情。
 
     随着时代的发展,电影、电视、手机等文娱载体的兴起,传统木偶戏渐被取代,以此民间艺术为谋生的戏班也逐步解散,有的戏班竟用录音机代替以往艺人的吹奏和演唱,其艺术魅力大大降低。1970年代曾在海外风光一时的铁枝木偶戏,媒体道出其如今面临着一个尴尬的处境:木偶不会老,讲方言的一代则逐渐老了。年轻一代不懂方言,使得木偶戏更加每况愈下……
 
     创新才是传统文化重焕生机的唯一出路。
 
     许瑞杰出身剧团世家,4岁学艺,6岁登台,坚守铁枝木偶的制作和表演手艺数十年,而今培养起了家族第四代传承人。在国内,像许瑞杰这样的传承人并不孤独,金石龙阁木偶剧团团长、铁枝木偶国家级传承人陈培森则更加关注木偶戏表演形式的创新。2012年,陈培森创新改编传统的潮剧剧目《杨八姐闯幽州》,人物服装、剧目内容都保留了古老独特的潮汕传统文化特色,但在表演的技巧上,《杨八姐闯幽州》突破了骑马、射箭、后空翻等铁枝木偶各项难度极高的表演技艺,重新展现出铁枝木偶戏的活力。凭借创新,《杨八姐闯幽州》当年还摘获了国际木偶艺术节“最佳传承奖”,潮州木偶在困难的传承环境中展露出希望之光。
 
 
     ▲马来西亚槟城潮艺馆潮州铁枝木偶戏艺人吴慧玲(右)与观众
 
     海外乡亲也为传承传统贡献力量。2014年,新加坡华乐团通过“阿德下南洋系列之街戏风情”来介绍铁枝木偶戏;2015年,新加坡国家博物馆举办了铁枝木偶相关讲座;新加坡本土剧团猴纸剧坊“持正剧的”何家伟虽非潮籍乡亲,却传承了潮州铁枝木偶戏的技艺,还改良了铁枝支衔木偶的方法,让艺人表演时更加轻便运作。海外同胞的种种努力,都是为了让这门传统艺术更加深入群众,为传承这个传统戏种尽一分力。星星之火可以燎原,在各方的传承与保护之下,期待铁枝木偶戏重拾辉煌。
作者:时代潮人 责任编辑:liumingming 分享:收蒧 | 复制网址
网友评论 已有0条评

文明上网,杜绝攻击性言论。

正在加载留言……

版权所有 环球潮人网 @2005-2012 All Right Reserved.

http://www.512mtv.com http://www.ktdvb.com http://www.nnvcd.com 澳门人娱乐城 沙龙电游 沙龙电游